Sun Zi Introduction Table of content – The Art of War

Chinese strategy explained : know yourself and the ennemy, use deception, spies, and "win with ease". Tr. Giles (en, annotated) and Amiot (fr).

I. Laying Plans
II. Waging War
III. Attack by Stratagem
IV. Tactical Dispositions
V. Energy
VI. Weak Points and Strong
VII. Maneuvering
VIII. Variation in Tactics
IX. The Army On The March
X. Terrain
XI. The Nine Situations
XII. The Attack By Fire
XIII. The Use of Spies

The Attack By Fire

Rather more than half the chapter (SS. 1-13) is devoted to the subject of fire, after which the author branches off into other topics.

Sunzi XII. 1.

Sun Tzu said: There are five ways of attacking with fire. The first is to burn soldiers in their camp;1 the second is to burn stores;2 the third is to burn baggage trains;3 the fourth is to burn arsenals and magazines;4 the fifth is to hurl dropping fire amongst the enemy.5

1. So Tu Mu. Li Ch`uan says: "Set fire to the camp, and kill the soldiers" (when they try to escape from the flames). Pan Ch`ao, sent on a diplomatic mission to the King of Shan-shan [see XI. ss. 51, note], found himself placed in extreme peril by the unexpected arrival of an envoy from the Hsiung-nu [the mortal enemies of the Chinese]. In consultation with his officers, he exclaimed: "Never venture, never win! ["Unless you enter the tiger's lair, you cannot get hold of the tiger's cubs."] The only course open to us now is to make an assault by fire on the barbarians under cover of night, when they will not be able to discern our numbers. Profiting by their panic, we shall exterminate them completely; this will cool the King's courage and cover us with glory, besides ensuring the success of our mission.' the officers all replied that it would be necessary to discuss the matter first with the Intendant. Pan Ch`ao then fell into a passion: 'It is today,' he cried, 'that our fortunes must be decided! The Intendant is only a humdrum civilian, who on hearing of our project will certainly be afraid, and everything will be brought to light. An inglorious death is no worthy fate for valiant warriors.' All then agreed to do as he wished. Accordingly, as soon as night came on, he and his little band quickly made their way to the barbarian camp. A strong gale was blowing at the time. Pan Ch`ao ordered ten of the party to take drums and hide behind the enemy's barracks, it being arranged that when they saw flames shoot up, they should begin drumming and yelling with all their might. The rest of his men, armed with bows and crossbows, he posted in ambuscade at the gate of the camp. He then set fire to the place from the windward side, whereupon a deafening noise of drums and shouting arose on the front and rear of the Hsiung-nu, who rushed out pell-mell in frantic disorder. Pan Ch`ao slew three of them with his own hand, while his companions cut off the heads of the envoy and thirty of his suite. The remainder, more than a hundred in all, perished in the flames. On the following day, Pan Ch`ao, divining his thoughts, said with uplifted hand: 'Although you did not go with us last night, I should not think, Sir, of taking sole credit for our exploit.' This satisfied Kuo Hsun, and Pan Ch`ao, having sent for Kuang, King of Shan-shan, showed him the head of the barbarian envoy. The whole kingdom was seized with fear and trembling, which Pan Ch`ao took steps to allay by issuing a public proclamation. Then, taking the king's sons as hostage, he returned to make his report to Tou Ku." HOU HAN SHU, ch. 47, ff. 1, 2.]
2. Tu Mu says: "Provisions, fuel and fodder." In order to subdue the rebellious population of Kiangnan, Kao Keng recommended Wen Ti of the Sui dynasty to make periodical raids and burn their stores of grain, a policy which in the long run proved entirely successful.
3. An example given is the destruction of Yuan Shao`s wagons and impedimenta by Ts`ao Ts`ao in 200 A.D.
4. Tu Mu says that the things contained in "arsenals" and "magazines" are the same. He specifies weapons and other implements, bullion and clothing. Cf. VII. ss. 11.
5. Tu Yu says in the T`UNG TIEN: "To drop fire into the enemy's camp. The method by which this may be done is to set the tips of arrows alight by dipping them into a brazier, and then shoot them from powerful crossbows into the enemy's lines."

Giles XII.1.

Sun Tzu dit : Les différentes manières de combattre par le feu se réduisent à cinq. La première consiste à brûler les hommes ; la deuxième, à brûler les provisions ; la troisième, à brûler les bagages ; la quatrième, à brûler les arsenaux et les magasins ; et la cinquième, à utiliser des projectiles incendiaires.


Sunzi XII. 2.

In order to carry out an attack, we must have means available.1 The material for raising fire should always be kept in readiness.2

1. T`sao Kung thinks that "traitors in the enemy's camp" are referred to. But Ch`en Hao is more likely to be right in saying: "We must have favorable circumstances in general, not merely traitors to help us." Chia Lin says: "We must avail ourselves of wind and dry weather."
2. Tu Mu suggests as material for making fire: "dry vegetable matter, reeds, brushwood, straw, grease, oil, etc." Here we have the material cause. Chang Yu says: "vessels for hoarding fire, stuff for lighting fires."

Giles XII.2.

Avant que d'entreprendre ce genre de combat, il faut avoir tout prévu, il faut avoir reconnu la position des ennemis, il faut s'être mis au fait de tous les chemins par où il pourrait s'échapper ou recevoir du secours, il faut s'être muni des choses nécessaires pour l'exécution du projet, il faut que le temps et les circonstances soient favorables. Préparez d'abord toutes les matières combustibles dont vous voulez faire usage. Dès que vous aurez mis le feu, faites attention à la fumée.


Sunzi XII. 3.

There is a proper season for making attacks with fire, and special days for starting a conflagration.

Giles XII.3.

Il y a le temps de mettre le feu, il y a le jour de le faire éclater : n'allez pas confondre ces deux choses.


Sunzi XII. 4.

The proper season is when the weather is very dry; the special days are those when the moon is in the constellations of the Sieve, the Wall, the Wing or the Cross-bar;1 for these four are all days of rising wind.

1. These are, respectively, the 7th, 14th, 27th, and 28th of the Twenty-eight Stellar Mansions, corresponding roughly to Sagittarius, Pegasus, Crater and Corvus.

Giles XII.4.

Le temps de mettre le feu est celui où tout est tranquille sous le Ciel, où la sérénité paraît devoir être de durée. Le jour de le faire éclater est celui où la lune se trouve sous une des quatre constellations Qi, Pi, Yi, Tchen. Il est rare que le vent ne souffle point alors, et il arrive très souvent qu'il souffle avec force.


Sunzi XII. 5.

In attacking with fire, one should be prepared to meet five possible developments:

Giles XII.5.

Les cinq manières de combattre par le feu demandent de votre part une conduite qui varie suivant les circonstances : ces variations se réduisent à cinq. Je vais les indiquer, afin que vous puissiez les employer dans les occasions.


Sunzi XII. 6.

1) When fire breaks out inside to enemy's camp, respond at once with an attack from without.

2) If there is an outbreak of fire, but the enemy's soldiers remain quiet, bide your time and do not attack.1

3) When the force of the flames has reached its height, follow it up with an attack, if that is practicable; if not, stay where you are.2

1. The prime object of attacking with fire is to throw the enemy into confusion. If this effect is not produced, it means that the enemy is ready to receive us. Hence the necessity for caution.
2. Ts`ao Kung says: "If you see a possible way, advance; but if you find the difficulties too great, retire."

Giles XII.6,7,8.

Dès que vous aurez mis le feu, si, après quelque temps, il n'y a aucune rumeur dans le camp des ennemis, si tout est tranquille chez eux, restez vous-même tranquille, n'entreprenez rien ; attaquer imprudemment, c'est chercher à se faire battre. Vous savez que le feu a pris, cela doit vous suffire : en attendant, vous devez supposer qu'il agit sourdement ; ses effets n'en seront que plus funestes. Il est au-dedans ; attendez qu'il éclate et que vous en voyiez des étincelles au-dehors, vous pourrez aller recevoir ceux qui ne chercheront qu'à se sauver. Si peu de temps après avoir mis le feu, vous voyez qu'il s'élève par tourbillons, ne donnez pas aux ennemis le temps de l'éteindre, envoyez des gens pour l'attiser, disposez promptement toutes choses, et courez au combat.


Sunzi XII. 7.

4) If it is possible to make an assault with fire from without, do not wait for it to break out within, but deliver your attack at a favorable moment.1

5) When you start a fire, be to windward of it. Do not attack from the leeward.2

A wind that rises in the daytime lasts long, but a night breeze soon falls.3

1. Tu Mu says that the previous paragraphs had reference to the fire breaking out (either accidentally, we may suppose, or by the agency of incendiaries) inside the enemy's camp. "But," he continues, "if the enemy is settled in a waste place littered with quantities of grass, or if he has pitched his camp in a position which can be burnt out, we must carry our fire against him at any seasonable opportunity, and not await on in hopes of an outbreak occurring within, for fear our opponents should themselves burn up the surrounding vegetation, and thus render our own attempts fruitless." The famous Li Ling once baffled the leader of the Hsiung-nu in this way. The latter, taking advantage of a favorable wind, tried to set fire to the Chinese general's camp, but found that every scrap of combustible vegetation in the neighborhood had already been burnt down. On the other hand, Po-ts`ai, a general of the Yellow Turban rebels, was badly defeated in 184 A.D. through his neglect of this simple precaution. "At the head of a large army he was besieging Ch`ang-she, which was held by Huang-fu Sung. The garrison was very small, and a general feeling of nervousness pervaded the ranks; so Huang-fu Sung called his officers together and said: "In war, there are various indirect methods of attack, and numbers do not count for everything. [The commentator here quotes Sun Tzu, V. SS. 5, 6 and 10.] Now the rebels have pitched their camp in the midst of thick grass which will easily burn when the wind blows. If we set fire to it at night, they will be thrown into a panic, and we can make a sortie and attack them on all sides at once, thus emulating the achievement of T`ien Tan.' [See p. 90.] That same evening, a strong breeze sprang up; so Huang-fu Sung instructed his soldiers to bind reeds together into torches and mount guard on the city walls, after which he sent out a band of daring men, who stealthily made their way through the lines and started the fire with loud shouts and yells. Simultaneously, a glare of light shot up from the city walls, and Huang-fu Sung, sounding his drums, led a rapid charge, which threw the rebels into confusion and put them to headlong flight." [HOU HAN SHU, ch. 71.]
2. Chang Yu, following Tu Yu, says: "When you make a fire, the enemy will retreat away from it; if you oppose his retreat and attack him then, he will fight desperately, which will not conduce to your success." A rather more obvious explanation is given by Tu Mu: "If the wind is in the east, begin burning to the east of the enemy, and follow up the attack yourself from that side. If you start the fire on the east side, and then attack from the west, you will suffer in the same way as your enemy."
3. Cf. Lao Tzu's saying: "A violent wind does not last the space of a morning." (TAO TE CHING, chap. 23.) Mei Yao-ch`en and Wang Hsi say: "A day breeze dies down at nightfall, and a night breeze at daybreak. This is what happens as a general rule." The phenomenon observed may be correct enough, but how this sense is to be obtained is not apparent.

Giles XII.9,10,11.

Si malgré toutes vos mesures et tous les artifices que vous aurez pu employer, il n'a pas été possible à vos gens de pénétrer dans l'intérieur, et si vous êtes forcé à ne pouvoir mettre le feu que par dehors, observez de quel côté vient le vent ; c'est de ce côté que doit commencer l'incendie ; c'est par le même côté que vous devez attaquer. Dans ces sortes d'occasions, qu'il ne vous arrive jamais de combattre sous le vent. Si pendant le jour le vent a soufflé sans discontinuer, regardez comme une chose sûre que pendant la nuit il y aura un temps où il cessera ; prenez là-dessus vos précautions et vos arrangements.


Sunzi XII. 8.

In every army, the five developments connected with fire must be known, the movements of the stars calculated, and a watch kept for the proper days.1

1. Tu Mu says: "We must make calculations as to the paths of the stars, and watch for the days on which wind will rise, before making our attack with fire." Chang Yu seems to interpret the text differently: "We must not only know how to assail our opponents with fire, but also be on our guard against similar attacks from them."

Giles XII.12.

Sunzi XII. 9.

Hence those who use fire as an aid to the attack show intelligence; those who use water as an aid to the attack gain an accession of strength.

By means of water, an enemy may be intercepted, but not robbed of all his belongings.1

1. Ts`ao Kung's note is: "We can merely obstruct the enemy's road or divide his army, but not sweep away all his accumulated stores." Water can do useful service, but it lacks the terrible destructive power of fire. This is the reason, Chang Yu concludes, why the former is dismissed in a couple of sentences, whereas the attack by fire is discussed in detail. Wu Tzu (ch. 4) speaks thus of the two elements: "If an army is encamped on low-lying marshy ground, from which the water cannot run off, and where the rainfall is heavy, it may be submerged by a flood. If an army is encamped in wild marsh lands thickly overgrown with weeds and brambles, and visited by frequent gales, it may be exterminated by fire."

Giles XII.13,14.

Un général qui, pour combattre ses ennemis, sait employer le feu toujours à propos est un homme véritablement éclairé. Un général qui sait se servir de l'eau et de l'inondation pour la même fin est un excellent homme. Cependant, il ne faut employer l'eau qu'avec discrétion. Servez-vous-en, à la bonne heure ; mais que ce ne soit que pour gâter les chemins par où les ennemis pourraient s'échapper ou recevoir du secours.


Sunzi XII. 10.

Unhappy is the fate of one who tries to win his battles and succeed in his attacks without cultivating the spirit of enterprise; for the result is waste of time and general stagnation.1

Hence the saying: The enlightened ruler lays his plans well ahead; the good general cultivates his resources.2

1. This is one of the most perplexing passages in Sun Tzu. Ts`ao Kung says: "Rewards for good service should not be deferred a single day." And Tu Mu: "If you do not take opportunity to advance and reward the deserving, your subordinates will not carry out your commands, and disaster will ensue." For several reasons, however, and in spite of the formidable array of scholars on the other side, I prefer the interpretation suggested by Mei Yao-ch`en alone, whose words I will quote: "Those who want to make sure of succeeding in their battles and assaults must seize the favorable moments when they come and not shrink on occasion from heroic measures: that is to say, they must resort to such means of attack of fire, water and the like. What they must not do, and what will prove fatal, is to sit still and simply hold to the advantages they have got."
2. Tu Mu quotes the following from the SAN LUEH, ch. 2: "The warlike prince controls his soldiers by his authority, kits them together by good faith, and by rewards makes them serviceable. If faith decays, there will be disruption; if rewards are deficient, commands will not be respected."

Giles XII.15,16.

Les différentes manières de combattre par le feu, telles que je viens de les indiquer, sont ordinairement suivies d'une pleine victoire, dont il faut que vous sachiez recueillir les fruits. Le plus considérable de tous, et celui sans lequel vous auriez perdu vos soins et vos peines, est de connaître le mérite de tous ceux qui se seront distingués, c'est de les récompenser en proportion de ce qu'ils auront fait pour la réussite de l'entreprise. Les hommes se conduisent ordinairement par l'intérêt ; si vos troupes ne trouvent dans le service que des peines et des travaux, vous ne les emploierez pas deux fois avec avantage.


Sunzi XII. 11.

Move not unless you see an advantage; use not your troops unless there is something to be gained; fight not unless the position is critical.1

1. Sun Tzu may at times appear to be over-cautious, but he never goes so far in that direction as the remarkable passage in the TAO TE CHING, ch. 69. "I dare not take the initiative, but prefer to act on the defensive; I dare not advance an inch, but prefer to retreat a foot."

Giles XII.17.

La nécessité seule doit faire entreprendre la guerre. Les combats, de quelque nature qu'ils soient, ont toujours quelque chose de funeste pour les vainqueurs eux-mêmes ; il ne faut les livrer que lorsqu'on ne saurait faire la guerre autrement.


Sunzi XII. 12.

No ruler should put troops into the field merely to gratify his own spleen; no general should fight a battle simply out of pique.

Giles XII.18.

Lorsqu'un souverain est animé par la colère ou par la vengeance, qu'il ne lui arrive jamais de lever des troupes. Lorsqu'un général trouve qu'il a dans le cœur les mêmes sentiments, qu'il ne livre jamais de combats. Pour l'un et pour l'autre ce sont des temps nébuleux : qu'ils attendent les jours de sérénité pour se déterminer et pour entreprendre.


Sunzi XII. 13.

If it is to your advantage, make a forward move; if not, stay where you are.1

1. This is repeated from XI. ss. 17. Here I feel convinced that it is an interpolation, for it is evident that ss. 20 ought to follow immediately on ss. 18.

Giles XII.19.

S'il y a quelque profit à espérer en vous mettant en mouvement, faites marcher votre armée ; si vous ne prévoyez aucun avantage, tenez-vous en repos. Eussiez-vous les sujets les plus légitimes d'être irrité, vous eût-on provoqué, insulté même, attendez, pour prendre votre parti, que le feu de la colère se soit dissipé et que les sentiments pacifiques s'élèvent en foule dans votre cœur. N'oubliez jamais que votre dessein, en faisant la guerre, doit être de procurer à État la gloire, la splendeur et la paix, et non pas d'y mettre le trouble, la désolation et la confusion.


Sunzi XII. 14.

Anger may in time change to gladness; vexation may be succeeded by content.

But a kingdom that has once been destroyed can never come again into being;1 nor can the dead ever be brought back to life.

1. The Wu State was destined to be a melancholy example of this saying.

Giles XII.20,21.

Ce sont les intérêts du pays et non pas vos intérêts personnels que vous défendez. Vos vertus et vos vices, vos belles qualités et vos défauts rejaillissent également sur ceux que vous représentez. Vos moindres fautes sont toujours de conséquence ; les grandes sont souvent irréparables, et toujours très funestes. Il est difficile de soutenir un royaume que vous aurez mis sur le penchant de sa ruine ; il est impossible de le relever, s'il est une fois détruit : on ne ressuscite pas un mort.


Sunzi XII. 15.

Hence the enlightened ruler is heedful, and the good general full of caution. This is the way to keep a country at peace and an army intact.

Giles XII.22.

De même qu'un prince sage et éclairé met tous ses soins à bien gouverner, ainsi un général habile n'oublie rien pour former de bonnes troupes, et pour les employer à sauvegarder État et à préserver l'armée.


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Alias Sun Tzu, Sun Wu, Sun Tse, Sunzi Bingfa, Souen Tseu, Souen Wou, 孫武.

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